Pitcher irrigation bibliography

Author / Reference

Stein, T.-M., 2019:

Pitcher irrigation bibliography. -

VL Irrigation & Hydrology, Sakia.org.

 

Introduction

Pitcher irrigation consists, in its simplest form, of unglazed baked earthen pitchers which are buried to their neck in the soil and filled with water. The water gradually seeps out through the porous walls into the root zone under hydrostatic pressure and/or suction, to maintain plant growth around the pitchers [Stein, 1990].

 

Pitcher irrigation is an ancient irrigation system which seems to have originated in northern Africa and in Iran. It is widely thought to be a water saving and efficient irrigation system. The reasons for this properties are thought to lie in its high autoregulative capabilities which arise from the close interaction between the pitcher and its environment, namely the soil, climate and plants. [Stein, 1998]

 

The following bibliography has been compiled over the years partly also with the assistance of members of the IRRIGATION-L discussion list. Thank you also to Prof. Dr. David A. Bainbridge from the Alliant International University for his contributions. This list is aimed at aiding the literature search on this subject. Any additional references are welcomed and will be added to this bibliographic list. However, a copy of the paper (soft or hardcopy) would be greatly appreciated and possible expenses could be refunded if agreed prior to sending. [Contact below].

 

 

Bibliography

  1. Agodzo, S.K., 1989: Pot Irrigation. - M Phil/PhD Research, First Year Report, University of Newcastle upon Tyne (unpublished).
  2. Agodzo, S.K., 1990: Research on Porous Pot Irrigation - Preliminary. Personal communication to Zöbisch, May 1990.
  3. Agodzo, S.K., Gowing, S.W. and M.A. Adey, 1991: Use of porous clay pot as alternative trickle irrigation device. - in Wooldridge, R.(Ed.), Techniques for environmentally sound water resources development: Papers presented to the African Regional Symposium held in Alexandria, Egypt, 17-19 February, London.
  4. Agodzo, S.K., Nishio, T. und Yamamoto, T., 1996: Microirrigation of Okra (Hibiscus esculenta). - Research Report, Land Conservation Division Arid Land Research Center (ALRC) Tottori University, Japan, February 1996.
  5. Akbar, G., Kahn, T.N. and M. Arshad, 1996: Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. - Rangelands 18 (4), 124-128.
  6. Alemi, M.H., 1981: Distribution of Water and Salt in Soil under Trickle and Pot Irrigation Regimes. - Agricultural Water Management Vol. 3, 195-203.
  7. Anonymous, 1978: Kuzeh Pot Irrigation. - Irrinews No.11, 3.
  8. Bailey, L.H., 1920: The Nursery Manual.- MacMillan, New York. 456p. (contains the use of clay double pot for cutting propagation)
  9. Barth, S., 1987: Personal communications.
  10. Barth, S., 1988: Gefäßbewässerung - Eine Alternative für aride und semiaride Gebiete. - Zeitschrift für Bewässerungswirtschaft 23 (2), 144-164.
  11. Barth, S., Jamillo G,G., 1989: Riego por Vasijas de Arcilla Cocida, una Alternativa para Zonas Aridas y Semiaridas. - Universidad Nacional de Loja, Centro Andina de Tecnologia Rural CATER. Eigenverlag. Loja - Ecuador.
  12. Bastani, S., 1998: Unterflurbewässerung mittels Kuzeh-Rohre - Entwicklung eines neuen Bewässerungssystems mit hoher Wassereffizienz und Bewässerungsversuche in Karadj/Iran. - Schriftenreihe Institut für Landschaftsökologie der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Heft 26.
  13. Batchelor, C.H., Foster, W.M., Murata, M., Gunston, H. und Bell, J.P., 1990: Development of Small-Scale Irrigation Using Limited Groundwater Resources. - First Interim Report. Institute of Hydrology Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB, United Kingdom.
  14. Batchelor, C.H., Lovell, C.J., Murata, M. and S.P.McGrath, 1994: Improving water use effectiveness by subsurface irrigation. - Aspects of Applied Biology 38, 269-278.
  15. Batchelor, C.H., Lovell, C. and M. Murata, 1996: Simple microirrigation techniques for impoving irrigation efficiency on vegetable gardens. - Agricultural Water Management 32, 37-48.
  16. Bokhari, S.W.H., 1990: Agroforestry brings life to the desert in Pakistan. - Agroforestry Today, Agroforestry Forum, 22.Bokhari, S.W.H.,1990 b: Personal communications to Dr. M. Z?bisch.
  17. Bainbridge, D.A., 1986: Pitcher irrigation.- University of California, Dry Lands Research Institute, Riverside, CA 3 p.
  18. Bainbridge, D.A., 1988: Pitcher irrigation.- Drylander 2(1):3.
  19. Bainbridge, D.A., 2001: Burried clay pot irrigation: a little known but very efficient traditional method of irrigation.- Agricultural Water Management, 48, pp 79-88.
  20. Bainbridge, D.A. and R.A. Virginia, 1989: Irrigation trials: progress report.- Systems Ecology Research Group. San Diego State University, San Diego, CA. 10 p.
  21. Balakumaran, K.N., Mathew, J., Pillai, G.R. and K. Varghese, 1982: Studies on the comparative effect of pitcher irrigation and pot watering in cucumber.- Agricultural Research Journal. Kerala. 20(pt2):65-67.
  22. Bucar, L. de Fátima, 1987: Irrigar com Potes de Barro horta caseira. - PROVARZEAS National, Ministério da Agricultura, SENAR, Ministério do Trabalho. Série Aprender a Fazer n.o 18, Brazilia.
  23. Clift-Hill, A., 1985: Investigations of the Design Requirements, Operation and Performance of Pitcher Irrigation. - MSc Thesis, Silsoe College, (unpublished).
  24. Daka, A.E., 2001: Clay pot sub-surface irrigation as water saving.- in: Daka, A.E., 2001: Development of a technological package for sustainable use of Dambos by small-scale farmers.- PhD Thesis, University of Pretoria.
  25. Dubey, S.K., Gupta, S.K. and R.C. Mondal, 1990: Response of ridge-gourd to saline irrigation water applied through earthen pitchers. - Transaction of the Indian Society of Desert Technology 15, 53-61.
  26. Dubey, S.K., Gupta, S.K. and R.C. Mondal, 1991: Pitcher irrigation technique for arid and semi-arid zones. - Dryland Resources & Technology 6, 137-177.
  27. Garcia, R.C. 1977: Cited in Silva, D.A., Carvallo, H.O., Silva, A.S. und Gheyi, H.R., 1988:Irrigation by Porous Capsules under Hydrostatic Pressure. - Zeitschrift für Kulturtechnik und Flurbereinigung (29), 27-35.
  28. Gischler, C. and Jáuregui, C.F., 1984: Low-cost Techniques for Water Conservation and Management in Latin America. - Nature and Resources Vol. 20 (3), 11-18.
  29. León, B., 1995: Pottery Irrigation on Peru's Arid Coast. - IDRC Reports, International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada, April, 8-9.
  30. Lovell, C.J., Batchelor, C.H. und Murata, M., 1990: Development of Small-Scale Irrigation Using Limited Groundwater Resources, Second Interim Report. - Institute of Hydrology Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB, United Kingdom.
  31. Mahdavi, 1977: Cited in Anonymous, 1978: Kuzeh Pot Irrigation. - Irrinews No.11, 3.
  32. Mari Gowda, M.H., 1974: Dry orcharding.- The Lal Baugh 19(1/2):1-85. (including buried clay pot combined with wick)
  33. Mondal, R.C., 1974: Farming with Pitcher: A Technique of Water Conservation. - World Crops Vol. 26 (2), 91-97.
  34. Mondal, R.C., 1978: Pitcher farming is economical. - World Crops Vol. 30 (3), 124.
  35. Mondal, R.C., 1983: Salt Tolerance of Tomato Grown Around Earthen Pitchers. - Indian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol. 53 (5), 380-382.
  36. Mondal, R.C., 1984: Pitcher Farming Technique for use of Saline Waters. Annual Report 1984, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India.
  37. Mondal, R.C., Gupta, S.K., Dubey S.K. and H.K. Barthwal (Ed.), 1987: Pitcher Irrigation. - Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India, 11-15.
  38. Mondal, R.C., Dubey, S.K. and S.K. Gupta, 1992: Use pitchers when water for irrigation is saline. - Indian Horticulture 36 (4), 13-15.
  39. Murata, M., Batchelor, C.H., Lovell, C.J., Brown, M., Semple, A.J., Mazhangara, E., Haria, A., McGrath, S.P. and Williams,R.J., 1995: Development of Samll-Scale Irrigation using Groundwater Resources.- Fourth Interim Report. Institute of Hydrology Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB, United Kingdom. Lowveld Research Station, P.O.Box 97, Chiredzi, Zimbabwe.
  40. Olguin, P.C., 1975: Cited in Silva, D.A., Carvallo, H.O., Silva, A.S. und Gheyi, H.R., 1988: Irrigation by Porous Capsules under Hydrostatic Pressure. - Zeitschrift für Kulturtechnik und Flur-bereinigung Vol. 29, 27-35.
  41. Olguin, P.C. und Santos, E.D., 1977: Cited in Silva, D.A., Araújo, J.V., Silva, A. de S. und Gheyi, H.R., 1985: Irrigaçáo por Cápsula Porosa, 1.Confecçá de Cápsulas e Ensaios de Liberaçáo de Agua. - Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileria Vol. 20 (6), 693-698
  42. Oswal, M.C. and Singh, K., 1975: Pitcher Farming of Vegetables under Drylands a new Dimension in Water Harvesting. - Haryana Agricultural Journal of Research Vol. 5 (4), 351-353.
  43. Palacios, O., 1975: Riego por succi?n. Descripci?n del m?todo y avances en la investigaci?n. In: Memorias del 1er Seminario Nacional de Riego por Goteo (tomo II: 165 ? 181). Hermosillo. Sonora. M?xico.
  44. Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation Board on Science and Technology for International Development Commission on International Relations, 1974: More Water for Arid Lands, Promising Technologies and Research Opportunities. - National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
  45. Power, G., 1985: Porous Pots Help Crops in NE Brazil. - World Water Vol. 10 (4), 21-23.
  46. Rendon, P. L, 1979: Cited in Silva, D.A., Araújo, J.V., Silva, A. de S. und Gheyi, H.R., 1985: Irrigaçáo por Cápsula Porosa, 1.Confecçá de Cápsulas e Ensaios de Liberaçáo de Agua. - Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileria Vol. 20 (6), 693-698
  47. Saleh, E. and B. Setiawan, 2010: Numerical modeling of soil moisture profiles under pitcher irrigation application. - CIGR Journal. 12. 14-20.
  48. Sheng Han, Shih., 1974: Fan Sheng-chih Shu: An Agriculturist Book of China written by Fan Sheng-chih in the First Century BC. Science Books, Peking. pp. 36-37.
  49. Shiek'h, M.T. and B.H. Shah, 1983: Establishment of vegetation with pitcher irrigation.- Pakistan Journal of Forestry. 33(2):75-81.
  50. Silva, A. de S., Santos, E. D. und Gheyi, H. R., 1978: Cited in ... Silva, D.A., Araújo, J.V., Silva, A. de S. und Gheyi, H.R., 1985: Irrigaçáo por Cápsula Porosa, 1.Confecçá de Cápsulas e Ensaios de Liberaçáo de Agua. - Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileria 20 (6), 693-698.
  51. Silva, A. de S., Silva, D.A. und Gheyi, H.R., 1983: Viability of Irrigation by Porous Capsule Method in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions (1). - International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, Twelth Congress, 753-764.
  52. Silva, A. de S., Silva, D.A., Gheyi, H.R und Porto, E.R., 1984: Viability of Irrigation by Porous Capsule Method in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions. - Pesqiunsa Agropecuaria Brasileria 19 (10), 1257-1265.
  53. Silva, D.A., Araújo, J.V., Silva, A. de S. und Gheyi, H.R., 1985: Irrigaçáo por Cápsula Porosa, 1.Confecçá de Cápsulas e Ensaios de Liberaçáo de Agua. - Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileria 20 (6), 693-698.
  54. Silva, D.A., Carvallo, H.O., Silva, A.S. und Gheyi, H.R., 1988: Irrigation by Porous Capsules under Hydrostatic Pressure. - Zeitschrift für Kulturtechnik und Flurbereinigung 29, 27-35.
  55. Stein, T.-M., 1990: Development of Design Criteria for Pitcher Irrigation. - MSc Thesis, Silsoe College (unpublished).
  56. Stein, T.-M., 1994b: Grundlagen und Technik der Gefäßbewässerung. - Zeitschrift für Bewässerungswirtschaft 29 (1), 62-94.
  57. Stein, T.-M., 1995: Hydraulische Leitfähigkeit von Gefäßmaterialien zur Gefäßbe-wässerung - Erste Versuchsergebnisse. - Zeitschrift für Bewässerungswirt-schaft 30 (1), 72-93.
  58. Stein, T.-M. 1996: Möglichkeiten der Veränderung der hydraulischen Leitfähigkeiten von Gefäßbewässerungsmaterialien. - Zeitschrift für Bewässerungswirtschaft, Journal of Applied Irrigation Science 31 (2), 165-181.
  59. Stein, T.-M. 1997a: Der Einfluß der Verdunstung, der hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit, der Wanddicke und der Oberfläche auf die Perkolationsrate von Gefäßen zur Gefäßbewässerung - Zeitschrift für Bewässerungswirtschaft, Journal of Applied Irrigation Science 32 (1), 65-84.
  60. Stein, T.-M. 1997b: Der Einfluß der Kultur und anderer Faktoren auf die Perkola-tionsrate von Gefäßen zur Gefäßbewässerung. - Zeitschrift für Bewässe-rungswirtschaft, Journal of Applied Irrigation Science 32 (2), 207-234.
  61. Stein, T.-M. 1998: Erarbeitung und Überprüfung von Entwurfskriterien für Gefäßbewässerungsanlagen (Development and evaluation of design criteria for pitcher irrigation systems, translation of original title).- Der Tropenlandwirt, Beiheft No. 66. Published at: Selbstverlag des Verbandes der Tropenlandwirte, 175pp.
  62. Usman, H., 1986: Investigating the Effect of Improving Clay Pot Design on Moisture Distribution in Pitcher Irrigation. - MSc Thesis, Silsoe College, (unpublished).
  63. Wiredu,A.-G.,1988: Trickle or Drip Irrigation using Porous Pot. - University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. B.Sc. Thesis, (unpublished).
  64. Yadav, R.K., 1983: Clay-Drip Irrigation - An Automatic System. - Transaction of the Indian Society of Desert Technology and University Centre of Desert Studies Vol. 8 (1), 18-22.

 

Author / contact

Thomas-M. Stein